Criminological characterization of environmental crimes in the field of subsurface resources protection

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Authors:


Y.A.Turlova*, orcid.org/0000-0003-0508-2087, V.M.Koretsky Institute of State and Law of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Yu.V.Orlov, orcid.org/0000-0003-1981-0794, Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, Kharkiv, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

H.S.Polishchuk, orcid.org/0000-0002-0829-2621, Brovary, Kyiv region, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

L.G.Kozliuk, orcid.org/0000-0002-8864-9693, V.M.Koretsky Institute of State and Law of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A.A.Ternavska, orcid.org/0000-0003-2624-7645, High Council of Justice, Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

* Corresponding author e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


повний текст / full article



Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu. 2023, (1): 129 - 135

https://doi.org/10.33271/nvngu/2023-1/129



Abstract:



Purpose.
To study environmental crimes in the field of subsurface resources protection and provide their criminological characterization, namely, to determine criminological indicators reflecting the studied crime rate, dynamics and structure.


Methodology.
A system of general scientific and special methods and approaches ensuring an objective analysis of the studied issue, particularly, logical and dogmatic, systematic, documentary, and modeling and statistical analysis methods.


Findings.
We determined absolute, mean and relative indicators of environmental crimes in the field of subsurface resources protection in Ukraine during 2002–2021, their total recorded number (9118 crimes), annual average (456 crimes) and share in the overall crime structure over the past 20 years (0.1 %). The conclusion shows a significant growth of environmental crimes in the field of subsurface resources protection in the overall crime structure (from 0.01 to 0.24 %) due to a significantly higher increase in these crimes rate compared to the absolute overall crime rate. The calculated dynamics indicators showed wave-like changes in the recorded crimes number against their steady overall upward trend – over the twenty-year period analyzed, reported crimes of this category increased more than 14 times.


Originality.
Following a long-term statistical analysis, since illegal amber mining criminalization, the article provides the first criminological characterization of environmental crimes in the field of subsurface resources protection.


Practical value.
The authors substantiate their understanding of the essence of this crime category envisaged by Article 240 of Ukraine’s Criminal Code “Violation of the Rules for Subsurface Resources Protection or Use, Illegal Extraction of Mineral Resources” and Article 2401 of Ukraine’s Criminal Code “Illegal Mining, Sale, Acquisition, Transfer, Sending, Transportation, and Processing of Amber”. The calculated indicators of the rate, dynamics and structure of the studied crimes are of standalone significance for academic research and law enforcement activities and create an appropriate basis for the information provision of combating environmental crimes in the field of subsoil protection being a prerequisite for developing an appropriate system of specified crime prevention measures.



Keywords:
crimes in the field of subsurface resources protection, subsurface resources use, crime indicators, rate, dynamics, structure

References.


1. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (n.d.). Criminal Code of Ukraine: Law of Ukraine of 05.04.2001 No. 2341-III. Retrieved from https://zakon0.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2341-14.

2. Mineral resources of Ukraine (2020). State Scientific and Production Enterprise “State Information Geological Fund of Ukraine”. Kyiv. Retrieved from https://mru-journal.com.ua/index.php/mru.

3. Turlova, Yu. A. (2018). Environmental crime in Ukraine: criminal-legal and criminal principles of counteraction: monograph. Kyiv: Znannia Ukrainy.

4. Turlova, Yu. A. (2017). Criminal-legal influence on environmental crime: monograph. Kyiv: Znannia Ukrainy.

5. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (n.d.). On amendments to certain Legislative acts of Ukraine concerning the improvement of the legislation on the extraction of amber and other minerals: The Law of Ukraine of 19.12.2019 No. 402-IX. Retrieved from http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/402-20#n63.

6. Turlova, Yu. A., & Polischuk, H. S. (2020). Certain topical issues of criminalization of illegal amber mining. Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu, (5), 122-129. https://doi.org/10.33271/nvngu/2020-­5/122.

7. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (n.d.). On amendments to the Criminal Code of Ukraine on criminal responsibility for illegal extraction of amber or its movement through the customs border. Draft Law of 04.09.2019 No. 2059. Retrieved from http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/webproc4_1?pf3511=66672.

8. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (n.d.). On amendments to certain laws on criminal liability for illegal extraction of amber or any other illegal operations with it. Draft Law of 11.09.2019. No. 2059-1. Retrieved from http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=66802.

9. Maksimentsev, M. H. (2019). Crime prevention in the sphere of natural resources use: monograph. Kharkiv: Panov.

10. Office of the Prosecutor General (n.d.). On the criminal offenses registered and the results of their pre-trial investigation. Retrieved from https://gp.gov.ua/ua/posts/pro-zareyestrovani-kriminalni-pravoporushennya-ta-rezultati-yih-dosudovogo-rozsliduvannya-2.

11. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (n.d.). On Amendments to Some Legislative Acts of Ukraine on Liability for Environmental Offenses. Law of Ukraine of November 05, 2009 No. 1708-VI. Retrieved from http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1708-17.

12. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (n.d.). Criminal procedural Code of Ukraine: Law of Ukraine of 13.04.2012 No. 4651-VI. Retrieved from https://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/4651-17.

13. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (n.d.). On the Unified Registry of pre-trial investigations: approved by the order of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine No. 69 of 17.08.2012. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/v0069900-12#Text.

 

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ISSN (print) 2071-2227,
ISSN (online) 2223-2362.
Journal was registered by Ministry of Justice of Ukraine.
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