Ecological and geochemical assessment of the soil contamination levels in the areas of metallurgical enterprises operation

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Authors:

Yu.Yu. Voitіuk, Cand. Sci. (Geol.), M.P. Semenenko Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (IGMF), Research Fellow, Kyiv, Ukraine

I.V. Kuraeva, Dr. Sci. (Geol.), Senior Research Fellow, M.P. Semenenko Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (IGMF), Head of a Department, Kyiv, Ukraine

H.A. Kroik, Doct. Sci. (Geol.), Professor, Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Professor of the Department of Zoology and Ecology, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

A.V. Pavlychenko, Cand. Sci. (Biol.), Associate Professor, State Higher Education Institution “National Mining University”, Senior Lecturer of the Department of Ecology, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

Abstract:

Purpose. Determination of regularities of accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in environmental objects in the zone influenced by metallurgical enterprises.

Methodology. Mineralogical composition and grain size has been defined for the soil samples selected. The X-ray analysis has been performed for the samples of dust emissions, soil and plants; the concentrations of heavy metals have been defined using atomic emission and atomic absorption spectral method. Ion exchange, back and fixed forms of the heavy metals in soils have been determined using nonselective extracting agents.

Findings. The levels of soil and plants contamination with heavy metals in areas adjacent to the metallurgical enterprise have been determined. We have detected that in the areas where metallurgical enterprises function the mobility of the heavy metals is higher compared to background areas: Zn by 4.8, Ni by 5.6, and Cu by 2.6 times. In the territory of metallurgical enterprises contents of ion exchange forms of heavy metals in the decreasing order create the following series: Zn> Pb> Ni> Cu> Cr; for backup forms: Pb> Cu> Zn> Ni> Cr.

Originality. The mechanism of transformation and migration activity of man-made forms of heavy metals in the system ‘emissions of the company - soil - vegetation’ has been determined. The increase of heavy metals in soils and change of their physicochemical properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, organic matter content) stimulates their migration activity.

Practical value. The knowledge about the migration activity of heavy metals makes it possible to assess their ability to move from the solid phase of the soil in the soil solution, and move along the profile with the soil solution and penetrate into human body by trophic chain. The features of the heavy metals absorption by woody and herbaceous plants allow using them as bioindicators of soil contamination.

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ISSN (print) 2071-2227,
ISSN (online) 2223-2362.
Journal was registered by Ministry of Justice of Ukraine.
Registration number КВ No.17742-6592PR dated April 27, 2011.

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