Analysis of surface settlements induced by tunnel excavation with EPB-TBM

User Rating:  / 0


N.Mekahlia*,, Mining, Materials, and Metallurgy Laboratory, National Higher School of Mining and Metallurgy, Annaba, Algeria, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Y.Khadri,, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria

S.Bensehamdi,, Mining, Materials, and Metallurgy Laboratory, National Higher School of Mining and Metallurgy, Annaba, Algeria

A.Benselhoub,, Environment, Modeling and Climate Change Division, Environmental Research Center, Annaba, Algeria

* Corresponding author e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

повний текст / full article

Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu. 2023, (1): 088 - 093


To investigate the efficiency of various approaches to predict surface settlements due to tunnel excavation.

To appreciate the surface displacements, our study is focalized on the case of a real tunnel in a layered ground (Algiers’s Metro), where a tunnel boring machine was driven for the first time in this country. Firstly, the surface settlement trough was calculated with empirical, analytical, and numerical (FEM) methods. Secondly, a set of numerical analyses was carried out to inspect the evolution of surface settlement as the TBM progresses. Finally, a parametric study was performed to examine the construction step most productive for surface settlement.

FEM is a useful tool for predicting surface displacements due to tunnelling, especially when assigning an adequate and sophisticated behaviour model.

A reference numerical model which represents well the construction procedures of the Algiers tunnel has been established.

Practical value.
This study illustrates that the results obtained by FEM with the use of Hardening Soil as a constitutive model to represent the soil are almost identical to those measured during the tunnel excavation. On the other hand, the empirical formulas available in the literature are not always efficient to predict surface movements.

surface settlements, tunnelling boring machine, empirical method, analytical method, finite element method


1. Liu, M., Yin, A., & Wan, C. (2022). Prediction on Ground Settlement Deformation and Influence of Urban Buildings in the Construction Process of Existing Tunnel Reconstruction. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing.

2. Wang, F., Miao, L., Yang, X., Du, Y. J., & Liang, F. Y. (2016). The volume of settlement trough change with depth caused by tunnelling in sands. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 20(7), 2719-2724.

3. Vu, M. N., Broere, W., & Bosch, J. (2016). Volume loss in shallow tunnelling. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 59, 77-90.

4. Dindarloo, S. R., & Siami-Irdemoosa, E. (2015). Maximum surface settlement based classification of shallow tunnels in soft ground. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 49, 320-327.

5. Lunardi, P., & Barla, G. (2014). Full face excavation in difficult ground. Geomechanics and Tunnelling, 7(5), 461-468.

6. Dias, D., & Kastner, R. (2013). Movements caused by the excavation of tunnels using face pressurized shields – analysis of monitoring and numerical modelling results. Engineering Geology, 152(1), 17-25.

7. Forsat, M., Taghipoor, M., & Palassi, M. (2022). 3D FEM Model on the Parameters’ Influence of EPB-TBM on Settlements of Single and Twin Metro Tunnels During Construction. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 15(3), 525-538.

8. Do, N. A., Dias, D., Oreste, P., & Djeran-Maigre, I. (2014). Three-dimensional numerical simulation for mechanized tunnelling in soft ground: the influence of the joint pattern. Acta Geotechnica, 9(4), 673-694.

9. Teo, P. L., & Wong, K. S. (2012). Application of the Hardening Soil model in deep excavation analysis. The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering, 5(3), 152-165.

10. Dias, T. G. S., & Bezuijen, A. (2014). Tunnel modelling: Stress release and constitutive aspects. In Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground – Proceedings of the 8th Int. Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground, TC204 ISSMGE – IS-SEOUL 2014, (pp. 197-202). Taylor and Francis – Balkema.

11. Boustila, A., Hafsaoui, A., Fredj, M., & Yahyaoui, S. (2020). Maximum surface settlement induced by shallow tunneling in layered ground. Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu, (5), 55-60.

12. Chakeri, H., Ozcelik, Y., & Unver, B. (2013). Effects of important factors on surface settlement prediction for metro tunnel excavated by EPB. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 36, 14-23.

13. Bogusz, W., Godlewski, T., & Siemińska-Lewandowska, A. (2021). Parameters used for prediction of settlement trough due to TBM tunnelling. Archives of Civil Engineering, 67(4), 351-367.

14. Ercelebi, S. G., Copur, H., & Ocak, I. (2011). Surface settlement predictions for Istanbul Metro tunnels excavated by EPB-TBM. Environmental Earth Sciences, 62(2), 357-365.

15. Chakeri, H., & Ünver, B. (2014). A new equation for estimating the maximum surface settlement above tunnels excavated in soft ground. Environmental earth sciences, 71(7), 3195-3210.

16. Wang, F. (2021). Empirical evidence for estimation of subsurface settlement caused by tunnelling in sand. Underground Space, 6(5), 577-584.

17. Wang, H. N., Chen, X. P., Jiang, M. J., Song, F., & Wu, L. (2018). The analytical predictions on displacement and stress around shallow tunnels subjected to surcharge loadings. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 71, 403-427.

18. Brinkgreve, R. B. J., Engin, E., & Engin, H. K. (2010). Validation of empirical formulas to derive model parameters for sands. Numerical methods in geotechnical engineering, 137, 142.



This Month
All days

Guest Book

If you have questions, comments or suggestions, you can write them in our "Guest Book"

Registration data

ISSN (print) 2071-2227,
ISSN (online) 2223-2362.
Journal was registered by Ministry of Justice of Ukraine.
Registration number КВ No.17742-6592PR dated April 27, 2011.


D.Yavornytskyi ave.,19, pavilion 3, room 24-а, Dnipro, 49005
Tel.: +38 (056) 746 32 79.
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You are here: Home