On extraction of ore minerals of the Donetsk basin in the early metal age

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Authors:

Yu.M.Brovender, Dr. Sc. (Histor.), Assoc. Prof., orcid.org/0000-0001-6372-0812, Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University, Severodonetsk, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

V.N.Okalelov, Dr. Sc. (Tech.), Prof., orcid.org/0000-0002-7844-5080, Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University, Severodonetsk, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract:

Purpose.Comprehensive analysis of ancient mining monuments of the Paleometal era in the Donetsk basin associated with the extraction of metal ores; determination of the cultural and chronological affiliation of the Berezovskyi mine on the extraction of silver ores ‒ a unique object of ancient mining in Eastern Europe.

Methodology. The work involved a set of methods: retrospective, historical and comparative, cartographic, statistical ones, method of analogies, method of typological and functional analysis. In addition, mineralogical methods were used to study sulfide ores (mineral diagnostics), the method of stratigraphic, mineralogical and petrographic analysis and a retrospective description of the mining technology development.

Findings. The results significantly expand the understanding of the resource base of the Donetsk basin exploited in the Bronze Age. The complex of ancient stone mining tools identified in one of the mine workings of the Berezovskyi silver-polymetallic deposit allows suggesting its development by the population of a catacomb cultural community during the Middle Bronze Age (XXVII‒XX centuries BC). And this, thereby, makes productive time of the Donbass ore base more remote, known from the materials of the ancient mines of the Late Bronze Age (XVII‒XIII centuries BC) in the copper ore zone of the Bakhmut depression of the Donets Basin almost by a thousand years.

Originality. For the first time in the territory of Eastern Ukraine an ancient silver ore mine was discovered. To date, their exploitation in antiquity, in contrast to polymetallic ores, was not even anticipated by researchers. The Caucasus was traditionally considered to be the main source of raw materials for the manufacture of silver products of by the population of the Eastern European steppe and forest-steppe in the Bronze Age. The study made it possible to expand not only the raw material base of the ancient Donbass population of the Bronze Age (XXX‒XIII centuries BC), but also the chronological framework of its mining activities for the extraction of metal ores.

Practical value. The data obtained expands the understanding of the raw material base used by the ancient population of the Donetsk basin. In turn, this will contribute to the formation of a holistic view on the metal production of the ancient inhabitants in the Eastern European region, which may probably be applied in preparing special works on ancient history, including the history of mining, as well as related disciplines, in the systematization of funds and the designing the museum exhibits.

References.

1. Gratten, J. P., Gilberson, D. D., Waller, J. H. and Adams, R. B., 2014. The geoarchaeology of “waste heaps” from the ancient mining and beneficiation of copper-rich ores in the Wadi Khalid in southern Jordan.Journal of Archaeological Science, 46(1), pp. 428‒433.

2. Tucci, A., Sayavongkhamdy, T., Chang, N. and Souksavatdy, V., 2014. Ancient Copper Mining in Laos: Heterarchies, Incipient States or Post-State Anarchists?, 2014. Journal of Anthropology and Archaeology [online],2(2), pp. 1‒15. Available at: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272373694_Ancient_Copper_Mining_in_Laos_Heterarchies_Incipient_Sta­tes_or_Post-State_Anarchists> [Accessed 17 April 2018].

3. Zori, C. and Tropper, P., 2013. Silver lining: evidence for Inka silver refining in northern Chile. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40,pp. 3282‒3292.

4. Klemm, R. and Klemm, D., 2013. Gold and Gold Mining in Ancient Egypt and Nubia. Geoarcheology of the Ancient Gold Mining Sites in the Egyptian and Sudanese Eastern Deserts. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidenberg, 648 p. [online]. Available at: <https://books.google.com.ua/books?id=ky8bVJ_fYEAC&printsec =frontcover&hl=ru&source=gbs_ge_sum­mary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false> [Acces­sed 7 March 2018].

5. Paralas, G., 2016. Ancient Greek silver mine discovered on Aegean Shore [online]. Available at: <http://www.newhistorian.com/ancient-greek-silver-mine-discovered-on-aegean-shore/ 5955/> [Accessed 28 February 2017].

6. Brovender, Yu. M., 2017. On the issue of metal production development in Dnepro-Donetsk region in the Eneolithic – Bronze Age. Herald of V.Dahl East-Ukrainian National University, 11(241), pp. 21‒26.

7. Brovender, Yu. M., 2016. On the issue of Donbass mining and metallurgical region in the Bronze Age. In: Problems of History and Archeology: Materials of the X International scientific conference dedicated to 125 anniversary of prof. K.E. Grinevich, Kharkiv, 2016 [online], pp. 11‒12. Available at: <https://khiao.wordpress.com/2016/10/25/news-36/> [Accessed 11 February 2018].

8. Shubin, Yu. P., 2018. Some aspects of geoarcheological investigations of the metal production objects in the Bronze age (by example of Donbass). In: Geoarcheology and archeological mineralogy – 1018. Materials of the V All-Russia Youth scientific school [pdf], pp. 149‒ 151. Available at: <http://baseserv.ilmeny.ac.ru/files/BIBLIO/BOOKS/22148.pdf> [Accessed 5 October 2018].

9.Nikitenko, I. S. and Lysenko, S. D., 2014. Results of the mineralogical and petrographic analysis of stone goods from the burial ground Malopolovetskoye-3 and the settlement Malopolovetskoye-2A (Kiev Region). Stratum Plus, 2, pp. 333–345.

10. Nikitenko, I. S., Starik, O. V., Kutsevol, M. L. and Shevchenko, S. V., 2018. Petrographic research on stone tools from the megalithic cult site of Tokivske-1, Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu, 4, pp. 5–12. DOI: 10.29202/nvngu/2018-4/1.

11. Tatarinov, S. J., 2018. Ancient miners and metallurgists of Eastern Ukraine. Kharkov: Express-book.

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ISSN (print) 2071-2227,
ISSN (online) 2223-2362.
Journal was registered by Ministry of Justice of Ukraine.
Registration number КВ No.17742-6592PR dated April 27, 2011.

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