Mechanism of protecting forest and land resources of Ukraine from illegal amber mining: legal aspect

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Authors:


A.O.Bulgakov, orcid.org/0000-0001-8991-7074, Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University Kharkiv, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

V.O.Ivantsov, orcid.org/0000-0002-2904-0466, Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, Kharkiv, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

V.S.Makarenko, orcid.org/0000-0003-3310-0684, Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, Kharkiv, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

K.O.Dubova, orcid.org/0000-0002-1098-9620, Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding Nikolaev, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

S.M.Klimova, orcid.org/0000-0002-5106-6873, Educational and Scientific Institute of Public Administration of V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


повний текст / full article



Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu. 2022, (1): 083 - 087

https://doi.org/10.33271/nvngu/2022-1/083



Abstract:



Purpose.
To determine a legally established mechanism of criminal-legal protection of forest and land resources on the territory of Ukraine where illegal amber mining is carried out.


Methodology.
The methodological basis of the study is a system of general and special methods of cognition: the dialectical method was used to learn the essence of such a phenomenon as the protection of public relations for environmental protection and rational use of natural resources during amber mining; system-structural method when separating the social relations of the constituent elements protected by the law within the specified structure; when analyzing the forms of socially dangerous acts of crimes under Articles 240-1, 239 and 245 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine; logical-dogmatic method during the interpretation of certain terms used in the sciences of geology, administrative and criminal law, contained in the provisions of current legislation; comparative law method - in the study of the relationship of objective signs of acts under Articles 201-1, 239 and 245 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine.


Findings.
It is established that the criminal law protection of Article 240-1 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine covers public relations for the protection and rational use of amber resources, forest and land resources. The former ones are the main direct object of the crime, the latter ones are the direct additional objects of this crime. The range of objects of this crime is established amber, forest and land resources. The collision of norms of Articles 240-1 and 245 and Articles 240-1 and 239 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine.


Originality.
It is established that the object of the crime under Article 240-1 of the Criminal Code includes the main direct object public relations for the protection and rational use of amber resources and two direct additional objects of crime: public relations for the protection and rational use of forest and land resources. It is determined that damage to forests due to illegal amber mining must be further qualified under Part 1 of Article 245 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine if illegal mining is carried out in a generally dangerous manner. This crime must be further qualified under Part 1 of Article 239 of the Criminal code of Ukraine if illegal extraction of amber is carried out with violation of special rules of treatment of substances, waste or other materials.


Practical value.
From a practical point of view, the results of the study will contribute to the correct qualification of practitioners of illegal amber mining in Ukraine.



Keywords:
protection of subsoil of Ukraine, illegal amber mining, protection of forests and lands, criminal liability

References.


1. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (n.d.). Forest Code of Ukraine: Law of Ukraine of 21.01.1994 No. 3852-XII. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/3852-12#Text.

2. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (n.d.). Land Code of Ukraine: Law of Ukraine of 25.10.2001 No. 2768-III. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2768-14#Text.

3. Tsymbaliuk, V.I. (2019). Problems of legal regulation of amber mining. Young scientist, (12.1), 71-73.

4. Explanatory note to the draft Law of Ukraine of December 26, 2014 No. 1351-1 On the extraction and sale of amber (n.d.). Retrieved from https://ips.ligazakon.net/document/GH11J1AA?an=4.

5. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (n.d.). Some issues of implementation of the pilot project of reclamation of forest lands violated as a result of illegal amber mining: Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 30.11.2016 No. 1063. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1063-2016-%D0%BF# Text.

6. On approval of the List of forestry lands, within which there are parts that have been violated as a result of illegal amber mining and need reclamation: order of the State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine dated 21.04.2017 No. 138 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://dklg.kmu.gov.ua/forest/control/uk/publish/article;jsessionid=80C8B6A300FD7B7C5DFFE8C56933816B.app1?art_id=179271&cat_id=65319.

7. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (2021). Criminal Code of Ukraine: Law of Ukraine of 05.04.2001 No. 2341-III. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2341-14#n2115.

8. Potikha, A. (2016). The problem of amber mining: current status and prospects for solution. Ukraine: events, facts, comments, (5), 36-44.

9. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (2019). On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Concerning the Improvement of Legislation on the Extraction of Amber and Other Minerals: Law of Ukraine of December 19, 2019 No. 402. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/402-20#Text.

10. Volnenko, S.O., Melnychuk, H.V., Kurepa, Ya.S., & Mamchur,S.V. (2017). Exploratory methods of amber mining in Ukrainian Polissya. News of the Donetsk Mining Institute, 1(40), 118.

11. Explanatory note to the draft Law of Ukraine dated 19.12.2019 No. 402-IX On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Concerning the Settlement of the Issue of Amber Mining (n.d.). Retrieved from http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb2/webproc4_2?pf3516=2240&skl=10.

12. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Legislation of Ukraine (n.d.). On approval of lists of minerals of state and local significance: Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of 12.12.1994 No. 82. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/827-94-%D0%BF#Text.

13. Melnyk, M.I., & Khavroniuk, M.I. (Eds.) (2018). Scientific and practical commentary on the Criminal Code of Ukraine (10th ed.), (pp.751-752). Kyiv:VD Dakor.

 

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