Fire damage of environment

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Authors:

E.M. Hulida, Dr. Sci. (Tech.), Professor, Lviv State University of Life Safety, Head of the department of Fire Tactics and Rescue Work Lviv, Ukraine

A.A. Renkas, Lviv State University of Life Safety, postgraduate, Lviv, Ukraine

Abstract:

Purpose. To determine the amount of pollution of the environment by fires and their impact on ecological safety, and to develop the methods of reduction of polluting emissions by reducing the time of free development of fire due to selection of the optimal route for fire-rescue units to the incident site.

Methodology. Analytical mass transfer model was developed for determination of emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere during an indoor fire. Main parameters were simulated: the number of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrochloric, hydrocyanic acid, acrolein and nitrogen oxides entering the atmosphere during a fire. The optimization model was developed to select the route of the fire-rescue units to the fire location.

Findings. Based on the integrated model of fire we have solved analytically the differential equation of material balance of toxic combustion products in an indoor fire. The results of calculation of emission using the mathematical model showed that as a result of fire in residential and administrative buildings a significant amount of toxic substances goes to the atmosphere. And the maximum surface concentration of some substances (hydrochloric acid) exceeds the short-term exposure limit. To reduce emissions we have developed a simulation model for selection of optimal route to the fire, which reduces the free development of fire and toxic emissions into the atmosphere.

Originality. The analytical model allows us to assess the emissions of toxic substances into the atmosphere during an indoor fire adequately and optimize the model to reduce the emissions.

Practical value. It was developed an algorithm and software for selecting optimal route for fire-rescue units the fire location based on the optimization model (on the example of the State Fire-Rescue Station Number 1 Galician Regional Department of the State Service of Ukraine for Emergency Situations of Lvov).

References:

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Registration data

ISSN (print) 2071-2227,
ISSN (online) 2223-2362.
Journal was registered by Ministry of Justice of Ukraine.
Registration number КВ No.17742-6592PR dated April 27, 2011.

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